Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Posted: April 13, 2012 in Uncategorized

The scariest moment is always just before you start.Stephen King



Posted: March 28, 2012 in Uncategorized

A quien se te parece?

Posted: March 5, 2012 in Uncategorized

El Río from Parque Explora on Vimeo.

“El Río” conferencia de Wade Davis, una crónica de viajes por el Amazonas, siguiendo los pasos de su maestro Richard Evan Schultes.

Published: February 14, 2011
STANFORD, Calif. — At the dawn of the modern computer era, two Pentagon-financed laboratories bracketed Stanford University. At one laboratory, a small group of scientists and engineers worked to replace the human mind, while at the other, a similar group worked to augment it.

In 1963 the mathematician-turned-computer scientist John McCarthy started the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The researchers believed that it would take only a decade to create a thinking machine.

Also that year the computer scientist Douglas Engelbart formed what would become the Augmentation Research Center to pursue a radically different goal — designing a computing system that would instead “bootstrap” the human intelligence of small groups of scientists and engineers.

For the past four decades that basic tension between artificial intelligence and intelligence augmentation — A.I. versus I.A. — has been at the heart of progress in computing science as the field has produced a series of ever more powerful technologies that are transforming the world.

Now, as the pace of technological change continues to accelerate, it has become increasingly possible to design computing systems that enhance the human experience, or now — in a growing number of cases — completely dispense with it.

The implications of progress in A.I. are being brought into sharp relief now by the broadcasting of a recorded competition pitting the I.B.M. computing system named Watson against the two best human Jeopardy players, Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter.

Watson is an effort by I.B.M. researchers to advance a set of techniques used to process human language. It provides striking evidence that computing systems will no longer be limited to responding to simple commands. Machines will increasingly be able to pick apart jargon, nuance and even riddles. In attacking the problem of the ambiguity of human language, computer science is now closing in on what researchers refer to as the “Paris Hiltonproblem” — the ability, for example, to determine whether a query is being made by someone who is trying to reserve a hotel in France, or simply to pass time surfing the Internet.

If, as many predict, Watson defeats its human opponents on Wednesday, much will be made of the philosophical consequences of the machine’s achievement. Moreover, the I.B.M. demonstration also foretells profound sociological and economic changes.

Traditionally, economists have argued that while new forms of automation may displace jobs in the short run, over longer periods of time economic growth and job creation have continued to outpace any job-killing technologies. For example, over the past century and a half the shift from being a largely agrarian society to one in which less than 1 percent of the United States labor force is in agriculture is frequently cited as evidence of the economy’s ability to reinvent itself.

That, however, was before machines began to “understand” human language. Rapid progress in natural language processing is beginning to lead to a new wave of automation that promises to transform areas of the economy that have until now been untouched by technological change.

“As designers of tools and products and technologies we should think more about these issues,” said Pattie Maes, a computer scientist at the M.I.T. Media Lab. Not only do designers face ethical issues, she argues, but increasingly as skills that were once exclusively human are simulated by machines, their designers are faced with the challenge of rethinking what it means to be human.

I.B.M.’s executives have said they intend to commercialize Watson to provide a new class of question-answering systems in business, education and medicine. The repercussions of such technology are unknown, but it is possible, for example, to envision systems that replace not only human experts, but hundreds of thousands of well-paying jobs throughout the economy and around the globe. Virtually any job that now involves answering questions and conducting commercial transactions by telephone will soon be at risk. It is only necessary to consider how quickly A.T.M.’s displaced human bank tellers to have an idea of what could happen.

To be sure, anyone who has spent time waiting on hold for technical support, or trying to change an airline reservation, may welcome that day. However, there is also a growing unease about the advances in natural language understanding that are being heralded in systems like Watson. As rapidly as A.I.-based systems are proliferating, there are equally compelling examples of the power of I.A. — systems that extend the capability of the human mind.

Google itself is perhaps the most significant example of using software to mine the collective intelligence of humans and then making it freely available in the form of a digital library. The search engine was originally based on a software algorithm called PageRank that mined human choices in picking Web pages that contained answers to a particular typed query and then quickly ranked the matches by relevance.

The Internet is widely used for applications that employ a range of human capabilities. For example, experiments in Web-based gamesdesigned to harness the human ability to recognize patterns — which still greatly exceeds what is possible by computer — are generating a new set of scientific tools. Games like FoldIt, EteRNA and Galaxy Zoo make it possible for individuals to compete and collaborate in fields like astronomy to biology, medicine and possibly even material science.


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Personal computing was the first step toward intelligence augmentation that reached a broad audience. It created a generation of “information workers,” and equipped them with a set of tools for gathering, producing and sharing information. Now there is a cyborg quality to the changes that are taking place as personal computing has evolved from desktop to laptop and now to the smartphones that have quickly become ubiquitous.

The smartphone is not just a navigation and communication tool. It has rapidly become an almost seamless extension of almost all of our senses. It is not only a reference tool but is quickly evolving to be an “information concierge” that can respond to typed or spoken queries or simply volunteer advice.

Further advances in both A.I. and I.A. will increasingly confront the engineers and computer scientists with clear choices about how technology is used. “There needs to be an explicit social contract between the engineers and society to create not just jobs but better jobs,” said Jaron Lanier, a computer scientist and author of “You are not a Gadget: A Manifesto.”

The consequences of human design decisions can be clearly seen in the competing online news systems developed here in Silicon Valley.

Each day Katherine Ho sits at a computer and observes which news articles millions of Yahoo users are reading.

Her computer monitor displays the results of a cluster of software programs giving her almost instant updates on precisely how popular each of the news articles on the company’s home page is, based on her readers’ tastes and interests.

Ms. Ho is a 21st-century version of a traditional newspaper wire editor. Instead of gut and instinct, her decisions on which articles to put on the Yahoo home page are based on the cues generated by the software algorithms.

Throughout the day she constantly reorders the news articles that are displayed for dozens of demographic subgroups that make up the Yahoo readership. An article that isn’t drawing much interest may last only minutes before she “spikes” it electronically. Popular articles stay online for days and sometimes draw tens of millions of readers.

Just five miles north at Yahoo’s rival Google, however, the news is produced in an entirely different manner. Spotlight, a popular feature on Google’s news site, is run entirely by a software algorithm which performs essentially the same duties as Ms. Ho does.

Google’s software prowls the Web looking for articles deemed interesting, employing a process that is similar to the company’s PageRank search engine ranking system to make decisions on which articles to present to readers.

In one case, software-based technologies are being used to extend the skills of a human worker, in another case technology replaces her entirely.

Similar design decisions about how machines are used and whether they will enhance or replace human qualities are now being played out in a multitude of ways, and the real value of Watson may ultimately be in forcing society to consider where the line between human and machine should be drawn.

Indeed, for the computer scientist John Seely Brown, machines that are facile at answering questions only serve to obscure what remains fundamentally human.

“The essence of being human involves asking questions, not answering them,” he said.

Coca Alfredo Molano

Posted: February 7, 2011 in Uncategorized

Parque explora Medellin

La coca y la tierra, la coca y la guerra, la coca y el poder político, la coca y la movilidad social, la coca y nuestras relaciones internacionales….


Posted: February 3, 2011 in Uncategorized


曖昧さ回避 M31は、この項目へ転送されています。その他の用法については「M31 (曖昧さ回避)」をご覧ください。
アンドロメダ銀河 (Andromeda Galaxy)
M31: アンドロメダ銀河
M31: アンドロメダ銀河
Credit: The Electronic Universe Project
星座 アンドロメダ座
赤経 (RA, α) 00 h 42.7 m (J2000,00)
赤緯 (Dec, δ) +41° 16′ (J2000,00)
距離 230万 光年
視等級 +4.3
視直径 190′ × 60′
直径 22〜26万 光年
(B-V) _
絶対等級 -21.4
特性 _
その他の名称 M31
NGC 224
Andromeda constellation map.png

アンドロメダ銀河Andromeda GalaxyM31またはNGC224として知られる)は、アンドロメダ座に位置する目視で確認可能な渦巻銀河である。さんかく座銀河銀河系(天の川銀河)大マゼラン銀河小マゼラン銀河などとともに局部銀河群を構成する。銀河系外の天体でありながら、ケフェイド変光星を利用して距離が測定されたことでも知られる。



概要 [編集]





アンドロメダ銀河の周囲には伴銀河としてM32M110 (NGC205)が観測できる(図1)。これらの伴銀河はいずれアンドロメダ銀河と衝突し吸収されてしまうと考えられている。



球状星団G1 [編集]

アンドロメダの近傍には銀河の他にも多数の星団も観測され、その中で最大のものはアンドロメダ銀河の周囲を巡っている球状星団G1である(図1右下、図2)。Mayall IIの名称でも知られるG1は、アンドロメダ銀河の中心から13万光年の距離にあり、宇宙の始まりから比較的早い時期に誕生した古い星々が数十万個以上集まって構成されていると考えられている。局部銀河群の中ではおそらく最も明るい球状星団であり、地球から観測した見かけの等級は13等級である。絶対等級としては天の川銀河で最も明るいオメガ星団(NGC 5139、視等級3.7)よりも明るい。



脚注 [編集]

  1. a b
  2. ^ 従来は直径13万光年程度と見なされていたが、近年の観測結果[1]によって、これまでアンドロメダ銀河のハロー部分(銀河周辺領域)と思われていた領域の星々が、実はアンドロメダ銀河のディスク(銀河の円盤部分)の一部であると判明しアンドロメダ銀河本体がより大きく拡がっていることが判った。
  3. ^ これは、伴銀河が数十億年前にアンドロメダ銀河に飲み込まれ、巨大ブラックホールの連星系が誕生して以降、その連星系にバルジ周辺のガスや暗黒物質が喰らい尽くされたものと推測されている。
  4. ^ しばしば誤ってアンドロメダ銀河の発見者として紹介されることがある。

外部リンク [編集]

フィクション [編集]

  • 銀河系に最も近い銀河で知名度も高いことから、多くのSF作品で異星人の故郷や宇宙旅行の目的地として登場している。
  • 田宮裕の著作『刑事訴訟法[新版]』372頁の伝聞法則の事例「おれはアンドロメダの帝王だ」は特に有名。


M1 かに星雲 – M2 – M3 – M4 – M5 – M6 ちょう星団 – M7 トレミー星団 – M8 干潟星雲 – M9 – M10 – M11 野鴨星団 – M12 – M13 ヘルクレス星団 – M14 – M15 – M16 わし星雲– M17 オメガ星雲 – M18 – M19 – M20 三裂星雲 – M21 – M22 – M23 – M24 – M25 – M26 – M27 亜鈴状星雲 – M28 – M29 – M30 – M31 アンドロメダ銀河 – M32M33 さんかく座銀河 – M34 – M35 – M36 – M37 – M38 – M39 – M40 WNC4 – M41 – M42 オリオン大星雲 – M43 – M44 プレセペ – M45 プレアデス – M46 – M47 – M48 – M49M50 – M51 子持ち銀河 – M52 – M53 – M54 – M55 – M56 – M57 環状星雲 – M58 – M59 – M60 – M61 – M62 – M63 ひまわり銀河 – M64 黒眼銀河 – M65 – M66 – M67 – M68M69 – M70 – M71 – M72 – M73 – M74 – M75 – M76 小亜鈴状星雲 – M77 – M78 – M79 – M80 – M81 ボーデの銀河 – M82 葉巻銀河 – M83 南の回転花火銀河 – M84 – M85 – M86– M87 おとめ座A – M88 – M89 – M90 – M91 – M92 – M93 – M94 – M95 – M96 – M97 ふくろう星雲 – M98 – M99 – M100 – M101 回転花火銀河 – M102 – M103M104 ソンブレロ銀河 – M105 – M106 – M107 – M108 – M109 – M110


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Du Sköna

Posted: September 24, 2010 in Uncategorized

Los realizadores de la coproducción nórdica “Du Sköna” (Die Beauty, en inglés) optaron por estrenar directamente su película en el famoso y polémico  tracker de torrents, The Pirate Bay, mediante una licencia Creative Commons, que autoriza la descarga, propagación e incluso la edición del material.

El filme, dirigido por Stina Bergman, es un thriller que habla de la amistad y los lazos familiares, desde una perspectiva surreal y fantasiosa, que también será exhibido en cines pues, tal como afirmaron sus creadores, “es difícil ganar dinero en The Pirate Bay”.

El trailer de la película, para entusiasmarse un poco más y animarse con la descarga, haciendo clic acá.