Archive for the ‘Capitalism’ Category

Filantro-Capitalismo. como los Ricos Pueden Cambiar el Mundo

ISBN: 978-84-936194-9-7
Editorial: Editorial Tendencias
Fecha de la edición: 2009
idioma: Español
Encuadernación: Rústica
Dimensiones: 0 cm x 0 cm
Nº Pág.: 445


Reseña: ¿Puede el capitalismo salvar el mundo? Dos expertos en economía presentan en esta obra un apasionante análisis de la explosión del capitalismo filantrópico y sus implicaciones. Hasta ahora, la caridad se basaba en donaciones privadas y ayuda no gubernamental. El filantrocapitalismo, en cambio, busca aplicar estrategias empresariales a la creación de recursos para los más necesitados. Si empresarios de éxito como Bill Gates o Warren Buffett se han valido de las nuevas tecnologías y la globalización para amasar inmensas fortunas, ¿por qué no aplicar las mismas técnicas al cambio social? Acostumbrados a pensar a lo grande, los filantroempresarios pretenden aportar soluciones creativas a los grandes problemas: el sistema público educativo, el cambio climático, la guerra o el desarrollo económico de los países pobres. Iniciativas como, Clinton Global Iniciative o Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, entre otras, son examinadas por los autores en una obra polémica, de lectura indispensable ante un movimiento que se multiplica.

By Adrianne Jeffries 10/04/11 3:09pm

The New Yorker has a great story in its upcoming issue about Bitcoin, the cryptocurrency still trucking along after a glorious rise in value to $33 USD due to a spate of media-driven attention followed by a plunge to about $5 USD, where it stands now. The writer, Joshua Davis, attempted to find Bitcoin’s creator, the probably pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto, who after years of prolific postings on the internet wrote to Bitcoin project lead Gavin Andresen in April that he had “moved on to other things.”

“He’s a world-class programmer, wit a deep understanding of the C++ programming language,” Dan Kaminsky, one of the country’s top internet security experts, said of Mr. (or Ms.) Nakamoto. ”He understands economics, cryptography and peer-to-peer networking. Either there’s a team of people who worked on this, or this guy is a genius.”

Mr. Davis started following Mr. Nakamoto’s trail of online writing, and noticed that, after an initial post announcing Bitcoin which used American spelling, the programmer used the British spelling, referred to London newspapers and at one point used the phrase “bloody hard”–suggesting he had lived or studied in the U.K. or Ireland.

Mr. Davis headed to the close-knit cryptography conference Crypto 2011 to find more traces of Nakamoto. He found nine attendees who fit the bill. Two were dismissive of Bitcoin; two had no history with large software projects. Then Mr. Davis started looking into a man named Michael Clear.

Clear was a young graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College in Dublin. Many of the other research students at Trinity posted profile pictures and phone numbers, but CLear’s page just had an e-mail address. A web search turned up three interesting details. In 2008, Clear was named the top computer-science undergraduate at Trinity. The next year, he was hired by Allied AIrish Banks to improve its currency-trading software, and he co-authored an academic paper on peer-to-peer technology. The paper employed British spelling. Clear was well-versed in economics, cryptography, and peer-to-peer networks.

(Mr. Clear was also 23 years old and fluent in C++.)

Finally I asked, “Are you Satoshi?”

He laughed, but didn’t respond. There was an awkward silence.

“If you’d like, I”d be happy the review the design [of Bitcoin] for you,” he offered instead. “I could let you know what I think.”

“Sure,” I said hesitantly. “Do you need me to send you a link to the code?”

“I think I can find it,” he said.

Mr. Clear sent Mr. Davis a lengthy opinion on Bitcoin’s strengths and weaknesses and suggested another cryptographer who matched Mr. Nakamoto’s profile, Vili Lehdonvirta, a Finnish programmer who used to make videogames and now studies virtual currencies. But when the New Yorker writer called, Mr. Lehdonvirta made a convincing denial. Which brought Mr. Davis back to Mr. Clear.

I told him that Lehdonvirta had made a convincing denial, and that every other lead I’d been working on had gone nowhere. I then took one more opportunity to question him and to explain all the reasons that I suspected his involvement. Clear responded that his work for Allied Irish Banks was brief and “of no importance.” He admitted that he was a good programmer, understood cryptography and appreciated the Bitcoin design. But, he said, economics had never been a particular interest of his. “I’m not Satoshi,” Clear said. “But even if I was I wouldn’t tell you.”

The point, Clear continued, is that Nakamoto’s identity shouldn’t matter … The currency is both real and elusive, just like its founder.

“You can’t kill it, CLear said, with a touch of bravado. “Bitcoin would survive a nuclear attack.”

Adrianne Jeffries is a reporter for Betabeat and The New York Observer. GPG public key: 222D2F697E12899D. Follow Adrianne on Twitter or via

What is Bitcoin?

Posted: March 29, 2012 in Capitalism, Ciber


Bitcoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency invented by programmer Satoshi Nakamoto, who also developed the Original Bitcoin client. It allows for pseudonymous and secure ownership and transfers of amounts of bitcoins, without relying on any central server to process the transactions or store the accounts.

Bitcoin is currently accepted in exchange for other currencies, such as dollars and euros, as well as directly for services and tangible goods.




Main article: History of Bitcoin

The first mention of the concept of cryptocurrency is said to have been made in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list, and Bitcoin can trace its origin to the B-money Proposal. Related to this is the more recent Bit Gold proposal by Nick Szabo.

The paper Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System describes the early concepts behind Bitcoin[1] and and precedes the first release of Bitcoin software.

The Bitcoin project was registered on November 9th, 2008. The Bitcoin network started up on January 3rd, 2009 with the genesis block. The genesis block contains a media reference to the dealings of a central banker in the UK.

On February 9, 2011, and for a few days afterwards, Bitcoin sold for over $1 in most exchanges.


Main article: Weaknesses

In the history of bitcoin, there have been a few incidents, caused by problematic as well as malicious transactions. In the worst such incident, and the only one of its type, a person was able to pretend that he had a practically infinite supply of bitcoins, for almost 9 hours.

Bitcoin relies, among other things, on public key cryptography and thus may be vulnerable to quantum computing attacks if and when practical quantum computers can be constructed.

If multiple different software packages, whose usage becomes widespread on the Bitcoin network, disagree on the protocol and the rules for transactions, this could potentially cause a fork in the block chain, with each faction of users being able to accept only their own version of the history of transactions. This could influence the price of bitcoins.

A global, organized campaign against the currency or the software could also influence the demand for bitcoins, and thus the exchange price.

See Also


  1.  Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper